John Atkinson was unlawfully killed as a result of the Attack.
When the bomb was detonated, John Atkinson was approximately six metres from the seat of the explosion.He suffered serious injuries, principally to his legs.
Following the detonation, John Atkinson attempted to drag himself across the floor of the City Room. He left an obvious trail of blood behind him.
A member of the public assisted John Atkinson very shortly after the blast. The member of the public made the first 999 call to report the Attack.were also applied around the top of both of John Atkinson’s legs approximately 43 minutes after the explosion.He was advised to apply a tourniquet to John Atkinson’s right leg, which he did during the call using his wife’s belt. In order to help stem blood loss, police issue “leg restraints”
John Atkinson was in the City Room for 47 minutes after the explosion. He was conscious during that time and spoke to those helping him. Members of the public, Showsec employees, ETUK first aiders and police officers assisted John Atkinson. He was not triaged or treated by North West Ambulance Service (NWAS) paramedics while he was in the City Room.
It took eight minutes to move John Atkinson from the City Room to the Casualty Clearing Station. At 23:16, he was placed onto an advertising hoarding and was dragged from the City Room.Between 23:19 and 23:20, attempts were made to manoeuvre John Atkinson on the advertising hoarding into the lift that joined the raised walkway to the station concourse. It was realised that the hoarding would not fit. At 23:21, after the advertising hoarding had given way, John Atkinson was lifted onto a metal barrier. He was carried towards the Casualty Clearing Station at 23:22. This was 52 minutes after the detonation.
John Atkinson remained in the Casualty Clearing Station for 24 minutes. At 23:47, while still waiting in the Casualty Clearing Station, he went into cardiac arrest.NWAS paramedics and a doctor gave CPR. At 23:50, John Atkinson was placed into an NWAS ambulance. In the ambulance, the doctor performed a chest decompression upon John Atkinson. This did not change John Atkinson’s cardiac output. The ambulance left Station Approach for Manchester Royal Infirmary at 00:00 on 23rd May 2017. At approximately the same time, some degree of heart activity was detected, but it is likely that this was merely intermittent activity and was in no sense a return to normal. On the contrary, circulation was continuing to reduce. The cardiac arrest at 23:47 was, on the expert evidence to which I shall turn in paragraphs 18.165 to 18.173, the point beyond which John Atkinson was incapable of survival.
John Atkinson arrived at Manchester Royal Infirmary at 00:06.By this time, he was again in cardiac arrest. He was taken to the resuscitation room and given Advanced Life Support. This was unsuccessful. John Atkinson was declared dead by the treating clinicians at 00:24 on 23rd May 2017.
The view of Professor Crane and Dr Lumb, which I accept, was that John Atkinson’s death was caused by the leg injuries he sustained in the explosion.I also accept the opinion of the Blast Wave Panel of Experts, which was that those were injuries from which he would have survived if given prompt and expert medical treatment. As I shall explain when dealing with survivability in paragraphs 18.174 to 18.190, such treatment should have been provided.